History of idea
The idea which differentiates various regions in brain was enthused simultaneously and was recommended through 1988 findings where 2 neurons oscillate simultaneously while a normal external object creates the corresponding receptive fields. The further experiments conducted by various other people indicated that such phenomenon in different categories of visual cognition. Specificially Christof Koch and Francis Crick during 1990, they stated that there is particular association between binding problem and visual consciousness problem and due to this, there is synchronic forty hertz oscillations which might be implicated casually with visual awareness and also with visual binding.
Andreas K. Engel et al has written an article on this topic in a journal titled Consciousness and Cognition (1999) which states that for temporal synchrony as the purpose for consciousness and indicates the gamma wave hypothesis as a synchronization of neural discharges which can associated with integration of various distributed neurons through cell assemblies and such a process might be present below the selection of behaviourally and perceptually applicable information.
Benefit of the disease with attentive focus
The basic mechanism is that gamma waves generally associated with neural consciousness through mechanics of conscious attention,
The suggested answer is based on a wave which originates in thalamus and passes through the brain from back and front, forty times per second which draws various neuronal circuits through synch with the precept and is considered to bring the principle of attention foreground. When there is a damage of thalamus slight bit, there will not be any stop and there is no conscious awareness and the patient will fall into coma stage.
As per the claim it is suggested that such neuronal clusters which oscillate together at time of transient periods during synchronized firing and they assist to bring associations and memories from visual principle to various other impressions. This will result in a distributed matrix where cognitive process will develop a coherent and cognitive act like perception. It has resulted in various theories which gamma waves are related to while they solve the binding problem. Gamma waves are generally noted as neural synchrony with visual cues in both subliminal and conscious stimuli. Such a research will also provide light on how the neural synchrony which will explain the stochastic resonance present in nervous system. They are associated with REM sleep that involves visualizations as well as anaesthesia.
Delta Binaural Beats example:
There was a study published in the year 2009 in Nature, which induced the gamma waves successfully into the brains of mice. The researchers carried out such studies with the help of optogenetics which is a method to combine genetic engineering along with light for manipulating the nerve cell activity. The ChR2 (Channelrhadopsin-2 protein) that sensified cells to light and engineered genetically through mice were expressed specifically through a target group of interneurons. Such FS interneurons are also popular for high electrical activity in which a laser and optical fiber form the 2nd step of optogenetics. The cell activity of such interneurons was controlled in frequency range of eight to two hundred Hertz. The study created empirical evidence through induction of gamma waves with an approximate time interval of twenty five to hundred hertz. The gamma waves are considered most relevant at a frequency of forty hertz and this indicates that gamma waves which are created through FS manipulation will be property of resonating the brain circuit. It is the 1st study where it has been expressed that brain state will be created through activation of particular cells group.
Association of gamma waves with Meditation:
There were research experiments carried out on Buddhist monks of Tibet which has shown that there is association between gamma waves and transcendental mental states. An explanation suggested in based on point that gamma is localized intrinsically. Neuroscientist Sean O Nuallain has suggested that the present of synchronized gamma will indicate that there is something associated to a singularity and in order to be very prosaic and conscious experience. Such work will add simulated and experiment data to prove that masters of meditation will have something in common and to place the brain in a state where your brain is highly sensitive and takes lot of power at minimal rate. The hypothesis of Zero power will suggest that very low power state might indicate a selfless sate and non-zero state, where there is no present of gamma waves.
As mentioned above, gamma waves are present predominantly among Buddhist monks. There was a research carried out during 2004, where 8 Buddhist monks were analyzed with help of electrodes to monitor the electrical activity in their brains during meditation. The results were compared against the results taken from novice meditators. These novice meditators were asked to spend 1 hour a day for a week on meditation. Under normal state of mediation, both the monks and novice showed similar electrical activity in their brains. But when monks wee asked to create a unique feeling of compassion at the time of meditation, the activity of brain started to fire in coherent rhythmic manner, which suggested neuronal structures to fire in harmony. It was observed during a frequency of twenty five to forty hertz and the rhythm of gamma waves was very high during this time. The oscillations of gamma bands in the brain signals of the monks were very high but were very less among novice mediators. But with various rhythmic signals appearing to increase the strength of novice meditators along with further experience through exercise implied the aptitude for producing gamma band rhythm which is entirely trainable.
The research and evidence in oscillation of gamma band might indicate the compounded sense of bliss, consciousness and rational sharpness related to meditation. The meditation is also considered to have different health benefits which include mood elevation, stress reduction and longer health of cognitive functions of the mind. The master of Buddhist philosophy, Dalai Lama says that he mediated 4 hours everyday morning and it is very hard work. He mentions that if neuroscience could develop a method in which we could reap the biological and psychological meditation rewards, rather than going through practice every morning, we will be able to adjust based on discovery. The previously mentioned research in gamma states that were introduced in mice could be first step towards this innovation.
There are various neuroscientists who are not yet convinced about the argument of gamma waves. The arguments which are against it will continue from the concept of wrong measurement and it has been considered that gamma waves measured through Electroencephalography could be in various cases an artefact of electromyographic activity and associated with neural functions such as eye movements.
But the proponents of Andreas Engel and O Nuallain state that gamma evidence will continue with meticulous separation of signals.
Based on this theory with mind, there were various questions which are not yet answered about the details on how exactly the temporal synchrony would result in conscious awareness and how a new percept will call for the synchrony etc.